Admitted to the bars of New York, the U.S. District Courts for the Southern and Eastern Districts of New York, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, and the U.S. Supreme Court. Professor Schwartz was managing attorney of the Research and Appeals Bureau of Westchester (NY) Legal Services and argued three cases in that capacity before the United States Supreme Court. Publishing widely on civil rights issues, he is the author of a semi-monthly column in the New York Law Journal, on public interest law; author of a multi-volume treatise on Section 1983 civil rights litigation, titled Section 1983 Litigation: Claims and Defenses (Aspen, 4th ed., 2007); author of Section 1983 Litigation: Federal Evidence (Aspen, 4th ed., 2007); and co-author of Section 1983 Litigation: Jury Instructions (Aspen 2009). Professor Schwartz is chair of the Practising Law Institute’s annual program on Section 1983 litigation and co-chair of its annual Supreme Court Review and Trial Evidence Programs. He has written a monograph on Section 1983 Litigation for the Federal Judicial Center and has participated in the New York Judicial Institute Training Program for state court judges.